Role of Gut Microbiota, Probiotics and Prebiotics in the
Cardiovascular Diseases

Anna Oniszczuk 1,* , Tomasz Oniszczuk 2,* , Marek Gancarz 3 and Jolanta Szyma ´nska 4

1 Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Chod ´zki 4a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2 Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Gł ˛eboka 31, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
3 Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Do´swiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland;
4 Department of Integrated Paediatric Dentistry, Chair of Integrated Dentistry, Medical University of Lublin, Chod ´zki 6, 20-093 Lublin, Poland;
* Correspondence: (A.O.); (T.O.)

Abstract In recent years, there has been a growing interest in identifying and applying new, naturally occurring molecules that promote health. Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host”. Quite a few fermented products serve as the source of probiotic strains, with many factors influencing the effectiveness of probiotics, including interactions of probiotic bacteria with the host’s microbiome. Prebiotics contain no microorganisms, only substances which stimulate their growth. Prebiotics can be obtained from various sources, including breast milk, soybeans, and raw oats, however, the most popular prebiotics are the oligosaccharides contained in plants. Recent research increasingly claims that probiotics and prebiotics alleviate many disorders related to the immune system, cancer metastasis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. However, little is known about the role of these supplements as important dietary components in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease. Still, some reports and clinical studies were conducted, offering new ways of treatment. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the roles of gut microbiota, probiotics, and prebiotics interventions in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; probiotic; prebiotic; gut microbiota; human health