Roberto Berni Canani 1,2*, Margherita Di Costanzo 1, Ludovica Leone 1, Giorgio Bedogni 2,3,4, Paolo Brambilla 2,5, Stefano Cianfarani 2,6, Valerio Nobili 2,7, Angelo Pietrobelli 2,8 and Carlo Agostoni 2,4

1Department of Pediatrics and European Laboraty for Investigation of Food Induced Diseases, University of Naples ‚Federico II‘, Naples, Italy
2’The Hobbit Group‘
3Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Liver Research Center, Basovizza, Trieste Italy
4Institute of Pediatrics, University of Milan, Fondazione IRC Cà Grande – Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mialn, Italy


A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have indentified links among early nutrtion, epigenetic processes and diseases also inlater life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to serveral diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic sysndrome, such as insulin resitance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrtion may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrion may also represent a vital  determinant of adut health by making an impact on the development and function of gut mivorbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota compostion an function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity an overall health status. In this reagrd probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal micorbiota balance, may e effecive in preventing the development of chrinic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epignetic emchanisms elivted by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous heath-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.


Epigenome: Microbiota: Maternal nutrition: Adult metabolic diseases