Bruno Bordoni, PhD DO1 , Fabiola Marelli, PhD DO2,3,
Bruno Morabito, PhD DO2,3,4 , and Beatrice Sacconi, MD5

Every body structure is wrapped in connective tissue or fascia, creating a structural continuity that gives form and function to every tissue and organ. The fascial tissue is uniformly distributed throughout the body, enveloping, interacting with and permeating blood vessels, nerves, viscera, meninges, bones and muscles, creating various layers at different depths and forming a tridimensional metabolic and mechanical matrix. This article reviews the literature on the emission of biophotons and adjustable sounds by the fascial system, because these biological changes could be a means of local and systemic cellular communication and become another assessment tool for manual (therapy) practitioners. This is the first article that discusses these topics in a single text, attempting to bring such information into an area of application that is beneficial to osteopaths, chiropractors, and manual therapists.

fascia, myofascial, osteopathic, manual therapy, biophotons, muscle